|History of the Evolutionary Medicine And Its Applicability To Medical Education|
History of the Evolutionary Medicine
And Its Applicability To Medical Education
The purpose of this paper is to show direction how historical epistemology of the evolutionary medicine and functionalistic methodology of clinical medicine can be integrated. In order to carry out the purpose, I, first of all, describe the history of evolutionary thinking which has been emerged in the first half of the 19th century. Second, I arrange the evolutionary theory which has been established by Charles Darwin, by the viewpoints of the medical affairs. Third, it is covered in my demonstration how the Darwin’s evolutionary theory had been distorted in socially and medically eugenics. I show that the evolutionary theory had been falsely represented in the name of ‘medical Darwinism’, which called by Zampieri. I furthermore clarify how and why the duration of medical Darwinism could have lasted for the 60 years just before WW II. Then, hereby, I exhibit the details of the epistemological base and etiology of the evolutionary medicine. Lastly I analyze the reasons why the evolutionary medicine has been excluded in the clinical medicine. If those reasons can be clarified, it would be useful for the evolutionary medicine to enter into current curriculum of medical education as well. This paper aims ultimately to examine those possibilities.
AAMC-HHMI (2009), Annual Report 2009
Aitken W. (1885), “Darwin’s Doctrine of Evolution in Explanation of the Coming into Being of some Disease.”, Glasgow Medical Journal 24
Antonovics, J., Abbate, J.L., Baker, C.H., et al. (2007), “Evolution by any other name: antibiotic resistance and avoidance of the e-word.”, PLoS Biology 5(2)
Appel, T. A. (1987), The Cuvier-Geoffroy debate: French biology in the decades before Darwin., New York: Oxford University Press
Bishop, Paul 2008, Analytical Psychology and German Classical Aesthetics: Goethe, Schiller, and Jung Volume 2: The Constellation of the Self, Taylor & Francis
Blackman, H. J. (2006), “Anatomy and embryology in medical education at Cambridge University, 1866-1900.”, Med Educ 40(3)
Bland-Sutton J. (1890), Evolution and Disease, London: Walter Scott
Bowler, P. (1992), The eclipse of Darwinism: anti-Darwinian evolution theories in the decades around 1900., Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press
Buklijas T, Low FM, Beedle AS, Gluckman PD (2011), “Developing a curriculum for evolutionary medicine: case studies of scurvy and female reproductive tract cancers.”, Evo Edu Outreach 4
Buklijas, T. (2012). The politics of fin-de-siecle anatomy. In M. G. Ash, J. Surman (Eds.) The nationalization of scientific knowledge in the Habsburg empire, 1848-1918 (pp.209-244). London: Macmillan.
Childs, B. (1999), Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Desmond, A. J. (1989), The politics of evolution: morphology, medicine and reform in radical London., Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
Dobzansky, T. (1937), Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press
Dubos R. (1965), Man Adapting., New Haven, London: Yale University Press
Eaton S. B. (1990), “Fibre Intake in Prehistoric Times.”, in Dietary Fibre
Ewald (1994), Evolution of Infectious Disease. Oxford University Press.
Ewald P. W. (1999), Evolutionary Control of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Viruses. pp.271-311 in Evolutionary Medicine, edited by W. Trevathan et al., New York:Oxford University Press
Gluckman, P. D., A. S. Beedle, et al. (2009), Principles of evolutionary medicine., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Greaves, Mel (2007), “Darwinian medicine: a case for cancer”, Nature Reviews (Cancer) vol. 7(Mar.)
Hutchinson J. (1884), The Pedigree of Disease; Being Six Lectures on Temperament, Idiosyncrasy and Diathesis., London: J. &A. Churchill.
Kincaid, H. and Mckitrick, J. (eds) (2007), Establishing Medical Reality, Springer.
Levin B. R., Anderson R. M. (1999), The Population Biology of Anti-Infective Chemotherapy and the Evolution of Resistance: More Questions than Answers: (125-137) In Evolution in Health & Disease, edited by S. Stearns., New York: Oxford University Press
Maclagan T. J. (1888), Fever, A Clinical Study., London: Churchill.
Mayr E. (1982), The Growth of Biological Thought. Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance., London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Mayr, E. (1942). Systematics and the Origin of Species, from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
McGuire M. T., Troisi A. (1998), Darwinian Psychiatry., New York: Oxford University Press
Montgomery, K. (2006), How Doctors Think: Clinical Judgment and the Practice of Medicine, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nesse R. M. (2005), “Maladaptation and Natural Selection.”, The Quarterly Reviwe of Biology 80(1): pp.62-71
Nesse R. M. and Williams G.C. (1994), Why we get sick: the new science of darwinian medicine., Time Books, New York.
Nesse, R. M. and J. D. Schiffman (2003), “Evolutionary biology in the medical school curriculum.”, Bio Science 53(6): pp.585-587
Nesse, R.M. and Stearns, S.C. (2008), “The great opportunity: evolutionary applications to medicine and public health. “, Evolutionary Applications 1: pp.28–48
Nyhart, L. (1995), Biology takes form: animal morphology and the German universities, 1800-1900., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Roberts M. (1926), Malignancy and Evolution: A Biological Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Cancer., London: Eveleigh Nash &Grayson.
Ruse, M. (1995) Evolutionary naturalism: selected essays
Sacks, Oliver (1999), Awakenings , Vintage Books.
Starr O. (1925), Lamarck-Darwinism and Dental Disease., London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd.
Stearns (1999), Evolution in Health and Disease, Oxford University Press
Stearns, Stephen C. (2012), “Evolutionary Medicine: its scope, interest and potential”, In: Proceeding of the Royal British Society 279: pp.4305-4321
Tracy S. W. (1992), “George Draper and American Constitutional Medicine, 1916-1946: Reinventing the Sick Man.”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 1: pp.53-89
Trevathan W R., McKenna J. J., Smith E. O., editors. (2007), Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives., New York: Oxford University Press.
Trevathan W. R., McKenna J. J., Smith E. O., editors. (1999), Evolutionary Medicine., New York: Oxford University Press.
Varki, Ajit (2012), “Nothing in medicine makes sense, except in the light of evolution “, J. Mol. Med. 90
Weismann (1902), Vorträge über Deszendenztheorie: Gehalten an der Universität zu Freiburg im Breisgau. Fischer, Jena. 2 volums
Williams, G. C. and R. M. Nesse (1991), “The dawn of Darwinian medicine.”, Q Rev Biol 66(1), pp.1-22
Williams, G.C. 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Zampieri, F. (2009), “Origin and History of Darwinian Medicine”, Human Mente Issue9.